By the Name of Nature but against Nature: An Ecological Study of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness
Mahdi Bakhtiari Hojjat, Esmaeil Najar Daronkolae
Journal of Anthropology & Archaeology, 1(1), pp. 01-11.

The relationship of people with nature is usually expressed in different ways, and certainly literature is one of them. Nature as one of the indispensable elements of writing has drawn the attention of many writers specifically the novelists. In this study, the researchers attempt to apply ecocritical analysis of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. The researchers also show how the relationship between man and nature which had been sympathetic and harmonized in Romantic period changed to cruel and heartless one in industrial and capitalistic Modern time; and how Conrad’s Heart of Darkness meticulously shows this alternation.

Full Text: PDF

Hojjat, Bakhtiari Mahdi., & Daronkolae, Najar Esmaeil. (2013).By the Name of Nature but against Nature: An Ecological Study of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. Journal of Anthropology & Archaeology, 1(1), pp. 01-11.

Abrams, M. H., Ed. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.Aubry, Jean G. Joseph Conrad: Life and Letters. London: Pluto Press, 1927.

Bate, Jonathan. Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition. London: Routledge, 1991.

Blackburn, William, Ed. Joseph Conrad: Letters to William Blackwood and David S. Meldrum. Durham: N.C. Publishing Group, 1958.

Brantlinger, Patrick. “Victorians and Africans: The Genealogy of the Myth of the Dark Continent.” Critical Inquiry 12.2 (1985): 166-203.

Clark, Timothy. The Cambridge Introduction to Literature and the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. San Diego: ICON Group International, Inc., 2005.

Donson, Amis. Green Political Thought. London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Doyle, Arthur. “From the Crime of Congo.” In Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness: A Casebook. Ed. Gene M. Moore. Oxford University Press, Inc., 2004. 243-267.

Esteva, Gustavo. “Development.” In The Development Dictionary. Ed. Wolfgang Sachs. London: Zed books, 1997. 6-25.

Feder, Helena. “A Blot upon the Earth: Nature’s Negative and Production of Monstrity in Frankestein.” The Journal of Ecocriticism 2.1 (2010): 55-66.

Gaard, Greta. Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Glotfelty, Cherlly, and Harold Fromm. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Huggan, Graham. Interdisciplinary Measures: Literature and the Future of Postcolonial Studies. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008.

King, Ynestra. “The Eco-Feminist Imperative.” In Reclaim the Earth: Women Speak Out for Life on Earth.

Eds. Leonie Caldecott and Stephanie Leland. London: Woman’s Press, 1993. 106-121.

Klue, Rachel A. Man’s Return to Nature. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008.

Kovel, Joel. “What is Ecosocialism?” Canadian Dimension 41.6 (2007): 22-26.

Kroeber, Karl. Ecological Literary Criticism: Romantic Imagining and the Biology of Mind. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Mallios, Peter L. Our Conrad: Constituting America Modernity. California: Stanford University Press, 2010.

McCarthy, Jeffery. “A Choice of Nightmares: the Ecology of Heart of Darkness.” Modern Fiction Studies 55.3 (2009): 620-648.

Morton, Timothy. Ecology Without Nature: Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007.

O’Riordan, Teel. “The Challenge for Environmentalism.” In New Models in Geography. Eds. Ronalds Peet, and Nicole Thrift. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. 72-102.

Pepper, David. Ecosocialism: From Deep Ecology to Social Justice. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Pigby, Kate. Introducing Criticism in the 21st Century. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002.

Russell, B. History of Western Philosophy. London: Unwin Hymn, 1996.

Said, Edward W. “Two Visions in Heart of Darkness.” In Bloom’s Modern Critical Interpretations. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2008. 5-19.

Sturgeon, Noel. “The Nature of Race: Discourses of Racial Difference in Ecofeminism.” In Ecofeminism: Woman, Culture, Nature. Ed. Karen J. Warren. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. 260- 278.

Watts, Cedric. “Heart of Darkness.” In The Companion to Joseph Conrad. Ed. J. H. Stape. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 45-63.

Mahdi Bakhtiari Hojjat
Master of Arts in English Literature
Kharazmi University, IRI

Esmaeil Najar Daronkolae
PhD Student in Drama and Dramatics/Theatre
Ohio State University, USA